Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction or a combination of these to persons of the opposite sex or gender , the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality , homosexuality , and bisexuality ,   while asexuality the lack of sexual attraction to others is sometimes identified as the fourth category. These categories are aspects of the more nuanced nature of sexual identity and terminology. Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity ; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic , hormonal , and environmental influences. Sexual orientation is reported primarily within biology and psychology including sexology , but it is also a subject area in anthropology , history including social constructionism , and law ,  and there are other explanations that relate to sexual orientation and culture.
Is Sexuality Biologically Or Socially Determined? - Words | Bartleby
M any religious and social conservatives believe that homosexuality is a mental illness caused exclusively by psychological or spiritual factors and that all homosexual persons could change their orientation if they simply tried hard enough. This view is widely pilloried and rightly so as both wrong on the facts and harmful in effect. We are told that homosexual persons are just as psychologically healthy as heterosexuals, that sexual orientation is biologically determined at birth, that sexual orientation cannot be changed and that the attempt to change it is necessarily harmful, that homosexual relationships are equivalent to heterosexual ones in all important characteristics, and that personal identity is properly and legitimately constituted around sexual orientation. These claims are as misguided as the ridiculed beliefs of some social conservatives, as they spring from distorted or incomplete representations of the best findings from the science of same-sex attraction.
There is no evidence that sexual orientation is biologically determined. In fact, there is evidence that disproves it. They are called twins. In fact, non-identical twins are twice as likely to both be gay as identical twins, which can only be explained by environmental factors, not DNA.
Homosexuality was considered a mental illness when Richard Pillard was in medical school. It was the s and the School of Medicine professor of psychiatry was at the University of Rochester. At the time, the American Psychological Association still listed homosexuality as a disorder and psychologists and psychiatrists were trained on ways to treat it.